Error Models and Theories

To appreciate the types of error that it is possible to make, researchers have looked at human error in a number of ways and proposed various models and theories. These attempt to capture the nature of the error and its characteristics.

To illustrate this, the following models and theories will be briefly highlighted:

  • Design- versus operator-induced errors;
  • Variable versus constant errors;
  • Reversible versus irreversible errors;
  • Slips, lapses and mistakes;
  • Skill, rule, and knowledge-based behaviours and associated errors;
  • The “Swiss Cheese Model”.