Current Cockpit Design Philosophies

Several researchers and industry experts have expressed the requirement for an overall design philosophy to serve as the bedrock upon which effective cockpit automation systems are to be built. Wiener (1988) explored elements of automation philosophy. The Air Transport Association of America (1989) stated that “A fundamental concern is the lack of a scientifically based philosophy of automation which describes the circumstances under which tasks are appropriately allocated to a machine or a pilot.” Billings (1991) presented the most comprehensive definition to date of the concepts and guidelines supporting what NASA refers to as human-centered aircraft automation (Figure 2). Dr. John K. Lauber, a Member of the National Transportation Safety Board, states “What is missing are principles, rules and guidelines defining the relationship between that technology and the humans who must operate it.” (Phillips, E.H. 1992).